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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.35 billion. The PRC is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). The PRC also claims the territories governed by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity today commonly known as Taiwan, as a part of its territory, which includes the island of Taiwan as Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a part of Hainan Province. These claims are controversial because of the complex political status of Taiwan. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers, China is the world's second-largest country by land area, and either the third or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the method of measurement. China's landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts in the arid north to subtropical forests in the wetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China's coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometres (9,000 mi) long, and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East and South China Seas. Languages: There are as many as 292 living languages in China. The languages most commonly spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, which contains Mandarin (spoken natively by 70% of the population), and other Chinese varieties: Wu (including Shanghainese), Yue (including Cantonese and Taishanese), Min (including Hokkien and Teochew), Xiang, Gan, and Hakka. Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. Other ethnic minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien family, and Wa of the Austroasiatic family. Across northeastern and northwestern China, minority ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages: Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the border with North Korea. Sarikoli, the language of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an Indo-European language. Taiwanese aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, speak Austronesian languages. Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national language of China and is used as a lingua franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds. Religion: Over the millennia, Chinese civilization has been influenced by various religious movements. The "three teachings", including Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, historically have a significant role in shaping Chinese culture. Elements of these three belief systems are often incorporated into popular or folk religious traditions. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China's constitution, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be subject to state persecution. China is home to many of the world's tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan. A 2012 poll conducted by WIN/GIA found that 47% of Chinese self-identified as "convinced atheist". Scholars have noted that in China there is no clear boundary between religions, especially Buddhism, Taoism and local folk religious practice. According to the most recent demographic analyses, an average 30—80% of the Chinese population practice some form of Chinese folk religions and Taoism. Approximately 10—16% are Buddhists, 2—4% are Christians, and 1—2% are Muslims. In addition to Han people's local religious practices, there are also various ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. Various sects of indigenous origin comprise 2—3% of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-designation is popular among intellectuals. Significant faiths specifically connected to certain ethnic groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui and Uyghur peoples.


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Agências da ONU

Programas, ONGs e Fundações que trabalham em formas contemporâneas de escravidão

Amnesty International
Human Rights Watch
Derechos Human Rights
Front Line, The International Foundation for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders
Human Rights Internet
Human Rights Network International database
Human Rights Resource Center
Human Rights Web
New Internationalist
Anti-slavery
Anti-slavery society
American Anti-Slavery Group (ASSG)
Free the Slaves
SaveAslave
The Wyndham Charitable Trust
Polaris Project
Committee Against Modern Slavery
SOS Esclaves Mauritania

Trafficking and sexual slavery

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
The emancipation Network
Coalition against Trafficking in Women
Project to end Human Trafficking
Humantrafficking.org
People Against Trafficking Humans
Ban-Ying (Germany)
Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women
Global Rights, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons
Human Trafficking Search (National Multicultural Institute)
International Organization for Migration, Prevention of Trafficking in Women in the Baltic States project
La Strada International
Perm Center Against Violence and Human Trafficking (Russia)
Stop Albanian Slavery
The Barnaba Institute
Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking
Bilateral Safety Corridor Coalition
Shared Hope International
AFESIP
Action to End Exploitation
Protection Project

Forced labour and migrant exploitation

International Labor Organisation
International Labor Rights Fund
International Organization for Migration
Kalayaan Justice for migrant workers
Matahari Eye of the Day
Global Workers Justice Alliance
Human Rights for workers
Irish Congress of Trade Unions
International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
Sweatshopwath
Trades Union Congress UK
Instituto Sindicale per la Cooperazione et lo Sviluppo
Coalition of Labor Union Women
International Organization of Employers
World Confederation of Labour
Children (forced labour and sexual slavery) UNICEF
International Initiative to End Child Labor
ECPAT International (child prostitution and trafficking of children for sexual purposes)
Justice for Children International
Save the children
Child Labor Coalition
World Tourism Organization - Task to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation in Tourism
South Asian Coalition on Child Servitude
Child Rights Information Network
Action Against Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children (ALTEN)
Association pour la lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants au Niger (ALTEN)
Butterflies Programme for Street and Working Children (India)
Casa Alianza Latina America
Casa Alianza UK
Child Labour Awareness
Child Rights Information Network
Child Workers in Asia
Child Workers in Nepal
Child Watch
Concerned for Working Children
Free the Children
Free the Children India
Global March Against Child Labour
HAQ: Centre for Child Rights and Campaign to Stop Child Labour
International Federation of Free Trade Unions (Child labour section)
ILO - International Programme of the Elimination of Child Labour
Child Trafficking Digital Library
World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
The World Bank- Child Labour
Understanding Children's Work: An inter-agency research cooperation project on child labour
ECLT Foundation - addressing the challenge of child labour in tobacco growing
World Congress against Sexual Exploitation of Children (CSEC)
RugMark Foundation
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